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台灣客家族群的聚落、歷史與社會變遷(四溪計畫)

新苗地區客家族群與原住民互動歷史之研究(1895-1950)

新苗地區客家族群與原住民互動歷史之研究(1895-1950)
  • 年度: 97年
  • 研究群名稱: 聚落、建築與族群關係
  • 子計畫編號: 26
  • 主持人姓名: 詹素娟
  • 主持人所屬機構: 中央研究院台灣史研究所
  • 補助金額(萬元): 60

四溪流域的原住民族,以鳳山溪、頭前溪、中港溪、後壠溪中下游的「熟番」社群(即竹塹社及後壠五社)、上游的「生番」社群(南、北賽夏及泰雅族石加路、金那基社群)為主。本研究的目的在:(一)建構客家族群與不同性質、地區原住民族的接觸歷史。(二)分析此一歷史過程對日治時代客家族群「形成」的影響,特別指對研究地區的客家聚落及社會的內部發展與凝聚,產生何種形塑或連動(如破除祖籍界線)的影響力。(三)探究不同性質的原住民族接觸經驗,是否亦促成新苗地區客家族群依其分布及區域的不同,於「在地化」後產生內部差異。
本計畫第一年度獲致之初步成果,為提出日治時期熟番的幾種解釋類型。日治時代之四溪流域分布有竹塹社、後壠社群,前者朝近山地區分散,並與客家族群近身接觸,後者雖有部分移居到造橋等地區,但主要人口仍以原村社之分布為主;因此,有的界於閩客之間,有的則散布於客家聚落內。熟番社會不同的變動方式,可有三種類型的理解:一是「顯性的『熟番』──身分登錄可以確認的人群」,二是「隱性存在的『熟番』╱身分登鍵無法反映的人群」,第三則是前述通則之外的「異例」;而四溪流域的熟番社會,則呈顯趨向「異例」的變化。在此一前提下,遂導致其與周邊漢人的接觸亦產生多種變數,而其與周邊客家族群的互動關係,將是此後的主要研究課題。

關鍵詞:新苗地區、熟番、竹塹社、後壠五社、身分登錄

There were two aborigine’s communities living along the Feng-shan, Tou-chien, Chung-kang,and Hou-lung Rivers: namely the downriver “cooked barbarians” (Chu-chien and Hou-lung five villages) and the upriver “raw barbarians” (Saisiat and Tayal). The research aims at three objectives:(1) constructing the history of contact between the Hakka and the aborigines in different areas; (2)analyzing the impact of the aforementioned historical process on the formation of Hakka ethnic group in the later Japanese period, with special attention given to the social development and integration (e.g., the breaking-up of identities based on places of origin) in the Hakka villages/society; (3) exploring how the variations of contact experiences affected the process and the nature of localization.
The preliminary result of the first-year research proposes several types of the cooked barbarians under the Japanese period. There were two communities along the Su-chi River, namely the Chu-chien and the Hou-lung. The former inhabited dispersedly near the mountain and close to the Hakka, whereas the later remained the earlier geographical distribution in spite of some migrating to Chao-chiao etc. To understand the social changes of the cooked barbarians, I propose three types of explanations: (1) visible with existing cooked barbarian identity; (2) invisible with existing cooked barbarian identity; (3) the exception. The cooked barbarians along the Su-chi River were moving toward the third type, which led to complicated variations while interacting with nearby Han people. Therefore, the interaction between the cooked barbarians and their neighboring Hakka would be the primary issue for further study.

Keywords: Miao-Hsin area, cooked barbarians, Chu-chien she, Hou-lung five she, identification、registration

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